Installing Ubuntu is a simple operation that has nothing to do with the complexity of the first Linux distributions. The procedure to setup Ubuntu doesn’t differ much compared to that of Windows and Mac OS: the graphical installer, which is equipped with the operating system, Mark Shuttleworth, allows you to perform all the steps needed in a fast and intuitive way. However, it is good to understand the best step to avoid possible errors that could jeopardize the success of the operation.
Let’s see together how to install Ubuntu 9.10 by analyzing all of the steps required.
Requirements installation Ubuntu 9.10
The first step is to verify that the desktop or laptop computer on which we want to install Ubuntu 9.10 complies with the minimum requirements that are the following:
• At least 25 GB of free space on a hard disk or 5 GB for minimal installation, a version that cut to the bone of Ubuntu.
• Processor dual core 2 GHz
• 4 GB of RAM
• A flash drive that has a capacity of at least 3 GB to accommodate the installation ISO
Carried out these checks we will have to download the ISO image updated Ubuntu 19.10 Eoan-Term, the most recent version available at the time of the writing of this guide.
How to install Ubuntu from pendrive
The Ubuntu installation must be done from a USB drive (or DVD, if you still have one available). To transfer the ISO of Ubuntu 19.10 on a USB stick you need to use one of the many tools that allow you to easily do this. We suggest among the many available UnetBootin, a tool cross-platform, available for Windows, Linux and macOS. To transfer the ISO of Ubuntu 19.10 will be enough to install UnetBootin, start it, and in the main screen, select the item “disk Image” going to set the ISO file of Ubuntu you downloaded earlier. In the dropdown menu “Unit” you will have to select the letter that identifies the drive that we have chosen.
Moved to Ubuntu on USB pendrive, we can proceed to the first step of the installation, that is, connect the memory stick and reboot your computer. If we have already configured in the BIOS to boot from the USB drive we will be greeted by the boot screen of Ubuntu, otherwise, it will be necessary to change the order of the drive by setting the usb drive as the first to read. This procedure differs from computer to computer and most of the times it will be sufficient to press the ESC button or the Delete key on our keyboard.
Setting the language and keyboard layout
The first choice to make is the language to be set, in our case Italian, and if you start the operating system in Live mode, or proceed directly to the installation. If you do not want to lose time you should click on the Install Ubuntu option that allows us to begin the installation quickly.
Another preliminary step, but very important, is the keyboard layout that should be set to a layout Italian. So we will have the certainty of being able to type accented or special characters.
Updates and additional software
After you set the language and keyboard, it is time to select what we want installed. It is possible to choose a setup type “Normal”, that includes everything you need to be productive immediately (browser, mail client, office software, media players) and a “Minimum” installation (very light, including only the browser and the basic tools). Between the two is highly recommended the normal version, especially if we want to work and exploit the system immediately and in a comprehensive way.
The other options are related to downloading updates and installing third-party software. The advice is to check both options: updates allow you to have a Ubuntu 19.10 updated with the latest security patches and kernel, new, warranty, speed, stability, and security. The installation of third party software is, in our opinion, are equally essential because, even if in principle the hardware is properly recognized, the cases are not rare in which a WiFi card or video card are handled with drivers that are not optimized, resulting in delays or a lack of reliability of the distribution in daily use.
Ubuntu: choice of the partitions
After the choice of the software to install, we find ourselves in front of a crucial step, and potentially destructive: the choice of which partition I choose to install Ubuntu.
The default choice, the easier and faster it is to use the entire disk, erasing all the data if it is present. This is an option that does not involve the installation in dual boot with a Windows (or Linux) pre-existing and you should only choose if we want that Ubuntu is the only installed system on the hard disk of our computer. The pure hard choose without hesitation this option, but in case you have a Windows system installed that you want to live with Ubuntu you have to click the “More” item which will define where to install the distribution and how many partitions to take up.
To make space for Ubuntu using Windows
In the case in which one needs to co-exist with Ubuntu’s Windows it is advisable to resize the partition dedicated to the system Microsoft using the utility disk Management (“diskmgmt.msc” of Windows , getting free space for the Ubuntu installation. Alternatively, you can use a free program that can be installed on Windows: Easeus Partition Master. It is a freeware that allows you to perform any operation on the existing partitions, in a simple way and without loss of data. If you prefer to use Linux there is Gparted Live, a distribution can be used by pen drive or DVD, which allows you to create and resize partitions easily, always by using a extremely intuitive graphical interface.
How many partitions to dedicate to Ubuntu?
The simplest option is to create a single root partition with mount point “/” and a swap of the virtual memory, even if our advice is to have at least three partitions: one for /root, a /home and a swap partition, bearing in mind that the home directory is the one that, in time, will tend to occupy more space because of our files, videos and images.
The creation of a partition involves creating a new partition table, primary or logical, and then setting the new partition as described for which you need to decide the space you want to devote and the type of filesystem to be set.
Taking as an example a total space of 40 GB allocated to Ubuntu , we can set, for example, a /root of 15 GB, a /home of 23 GB, and a swap partition of 2GB, a dimension that is sufficient in the case you have 4 GB of RAM. In the manuals is always indicated to allocate to the swap partition of double the RAM installed on the computer, but this is true if you need to activate the hibernation mode of the operating system. If we expect an intensive use of the hibernate system we will have to allocate 8 GB to the swap partition (always expecting a RAM of 4 GB).
Instead, as regards the installation of the GRUB boot loader, need to boot to your operating system, we can choose as the destination device /dev/sda. GRUB will boot Ubuntu and it will automatically recognize any Windows system already installed, providing to configure an entry dedicated to his startup.
After the procedure of creation of the partitions you will be able to write the changes to disk by clicking on the “Install”button.
The final configuration of Ubuntu
Once you have completed the writing phase of the partitions we will have to complete the last two steps: the choice of the Locality in which we find ourselves, which is useful for setting the system date and time, but above all setting the user name and password to login to Ubuntu. The advice is to choose a complex password in order to login to our Linux box is a test of possible intrusions. Just to avoid any nasty surprises we recommend at this stage to tick the option to request a password at each login, and to avoid the automatic logon.
Set these configurations, we can go ahead and start the copying of the system files of Ubuntu. This process will take several minutes, and you will be shown a progress bar to indicate the progress. In case you want to see what files are installed, simply click on the arrow symbol on the left of the progress bar.
You have completed the installation we will be prompted for a restart to be able to finally log in to our Ubuntu installation 19.10.